Books on culture by Geert and Gert Jan Hofstede, and Misho MinkovRevised and expanded 3rd Edition. ISBN Read more. Translated in many languages. Geert Hofstede's first book on culture, Culture's consequences, appeared in
Managers should not treat nationality as ‘software of the mind’
Full E-book Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition: Software of the
Culture as mental programming In Western languages 'culture' commonly means 'civilization' or 'refinement of the mind' and in particular the results of such refinement, like education, art, and literature. This is 'culture in the narrow sense; 'culture one' Culture as mental software, however, corresponds to a much broader use of the word which is common among social anthropologists: this is culture two. In social anthropology, 'culture' is a catchword for all those patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting referred to in the previous paragraphs. Not only those activities supposed to refine the mind are included in 'culture two', but also the ordinary and menial things in life: greeting, eating, showing or not showing feelings, keeping a certain physical distance from others, making love, or maintaining body hygiene. It is a collective phenomenon, because it is at least partly shared with people who live or lived within the same social environment, which is where it was learned. Culture is learned, not inherited.